Glaucoma is a disease that happens when there is too much pressure inside the eye. This damages the nerve fibres that make up the optic nerve. This nerve is in charge of sending information about what the eye sees to the brain. Damage to the nerve fibres causes vision problems and makes it harder to see things. If this isn't fixed right away, it could cause blindness.
Normal ocular pressure is between 11- and 21-mm Hg, which is about how much water a balloon can hold. The eye needs to have this pressure for it to work right. A fluid causes this pressure in the eye called aqueous humour, which is always being made and then drained away. This process goes on all the time. If this delicate balance is thrown off, the eye pressure will be too high, damaging the nerve fibres.
Different types of glaucoma have different sets of symptoms. These depend heavily on the channels that drain fluid from the eye's anterior chamber.
POAG (Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma) is the silent, chronic kind. In its early stages, glaucoma often presents no symptoms and is discovered by chance during a routine eye test with a surgeon. In the future, we may experience symptoms such as a dull aching in the eyes, a throbbing headache, frequent changes in the strength of our prescription glasses, or an inability to see some parts of the visual field.
NARROW-ANGLE GLAUCOMA may result in severe discomfort, redness, headaches, and the perception of coloured bands around light bulbs. Pupil dilation caused blocked outflow of fluid drainage and increased intraocular pressure, which is more noticeable in the dark or low light when these symptoms are most common.
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a disease characterized by poorly developed exit channels from birth. The cornea becomes opaque due to increased pressure, and the eye may progressively enlarge. The youngster may have impaired vision, glare, watery eyes, or an enlarged eye. This needs prompt treatment.